Annotated Bibliography

Stein, Robert Louis. The French Sugar Business in the Eighteenth Century. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State UP, 1988. Print.

The book is a complete and reliable source of information regarding the French sugar plantations. It illustrates how the slave trade was developed, how politics were involved in it, how was the life in the plantations, what was the implication of the sugar plantations on natives, French, and population in general. Some of the most relevant topics of the book are the sugar trade, highlights of the 18th century and their implications on the sugar plantations, and slave trade. In summary, the book covers a variety of topics related to the French trade and management of sugar plantations but the most fascinating and deep part is the Slave Trade and its history.

Ebert, Christopher. (2008). Between Empires: Brazilian Sugar in the Early Atlantic Economy, 1550-1630. Boston: Brill.

Ebert’s book is a trustworthy source that provides ample information on sugar as a commodity in history.  Breaking the content down by important sectors, he explains how countries were involved and gives a vivid synopsis of the journey of sugar.  Also included are several maps, pictures, and charts to help better explain certain statistics and situations. He does a great job explaining things in great detail, making it seem as if the reader was present during the era. He does not seem to place his opinion in the writing either, leaving that up to  the audience to do based on facts. In each section, the information is placed in chronological order making it easier to follow along and comprehend.

All throughout the text, Ebert includes footnotes that lead to a surplus of sources he used, all seeming extremely credible. Students reading this book for leisure or for education purposed should have no problem understanding and grasping the concepts Ebert has in place.

“The Cambridge World History of Food – Sugar.” The Cambridge World History of Food. Web. 19 Mar. 2012. <;.

This is a publication from a reliable source. One can find statistics and facts from the beginning of the twenty-first century regarding sugar. It gives background information, history highlights, production processes explanations, and probably the most relevant part of it is the trading, production, and consumption trends. It is a good resume on sugar trends and provides general ideas about the topic.

 “What Is Sugar.” Web. 01 Apr. 2012. <;.

The website is designed for parents. It is supposed to help parents answer their children questions. One can find very general definitions and descriptions of different topics. On this website, it was used only to define “sugar.”

 Sugar Nutrition UK. Web. 19 Apr. 2012. <;.

This is a website focused on sugar and the implications of sugar on people. It gives a lot of relevant information about the production of sugar. The website is based on the information from a relevant source. Some of their data is from “Sugar Economy Europe 2011.” The ‘about sugar’ tab gives a general idea and facts about sugar. The website is really loaded on information related to sugar issues on health, fitness, science, research, and sugar composition.

 “Sugar, Types of Sugar, Different Types of Sugar.” What’s Cooking America. Web. 12 Mar. 2012. <;.

This website is designed for cooks to figure out new recipes. It was mostly relevant for this website the part about the types of sugar. It was very complete and included all the different types of sugar that were spread all over the web.

Van, Hook A. Sugar: Its Production, Technology, and Uses. New York: Ronald Press Co, 1949. Print.

 The book is a great source of information regarding types of plants used for the production of sugar, production processes, background information, and composition of the molecule of sugar. It was relevant for the website because of the section on the production processes for sugarcane and beet sugar. As well as, for the early developments f sugar throughout history.

Aronson, Marc, and Marina T. Budhos. Sugar Changed the World: A Story of Magic, Spice, Slavery, Freedom, and Science. Boston [Mass.: Clarion Books, 2010. Print.

The way the book is written makes the reader want to keep reading it. It has a good amount of information regarding the history behind the development of sugar. Additionally, the graphs enable the reader to understand the topic easily and make connections faster. One could base its research of the ideas presented in the book.

 “Sugar and Sweeteners: Recommended Data.” ERS/USDA Briefing Room -. 19 Apr. 2012 <;.

This website is a government sponsored site that offers a briefing room for hundreds of topics. For sugar in particular, it offers different tabs/sections including overview, background, market outlook, and policies. It was factual information and was a good source for the economy section.

 “Sugar Industry.” EDIS. Sugarcane Economics and Policy (Sugarcane Handbook). Web. 19 Apr. 2012. <;.

This site was a very useful tool for the economy section. It is from the University of Florida and contains hundreds of peer-reviewed publications. It offers substantial information about the sugar industry. It has data about sugar in Florida specifically, but also has tons of data about sugar in the world.

United States Department of Agriculture. “Profiling Food Consumption in America.” 2002.

The USDA put together the Agriculture Fact Book that profiled food consumption in America. It has good information about the main foods consumed in America. It gives factual and accurate information about the amount of sugar consumed in America.

Liu S. “Intake of Refined Carbohydrates and Whole Grain Foods in Relation to Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Coronary Heart Disease.” Journal of the American College of Nutrition. 2002. 21(4):298-306.

This was an extremely helpful website. It is from the Journal of the American College of Nutrition. It explained and discussed how sugar and refined carbohydrate intake directly correlates to diabetes and heart disease. It served as a helpful source for the impact on health section.

Challem J, Berkson B, Smith MD. “Syndrome X: The Complete Nutritional Program to Prevent and Reverse Insulin Resistance.” 2001.

This book was a good source to prove that excessive sugar and refined carbohydrate intake damages the body’s insulin level which proves that sugar relates to diabetes and heart disease. It thoroughly explains why and how the sugar damages the body.

Lenoir M, Serre F, Cantin L, Ahmed SH (2007) Intense Sweetness Surpasses Cocaine Reward. PLoS ONE 2(8): e698. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000698

This was a  very intriguing experiment that explains how sugar is more addictive than cocaine. It contained a substantial amount of information about how sugar is absolutely addictive. It served as a good point on the impact on health section.

Hudgins LC, Hellerstein MK, Seidman C, Neese RA, Tremaroli JD, Hirsch J. “Relationship between carbohydrate-induced hypertriglyceridemia and fatty acid synthesis in lean and obese subjects.” Journal of Lipid Research. 2000. 41:595-604.

This website is a scientific journal by the Journal of Lipid Research. It has in-depth explanations of the affect sugar has on the body. It states that excessive sugar and refined carbohydrate intake directly relates to weight gain and disease of the body. It was a very useful source in creating the impact on health section.

 “Australian Commodities: March Quarter 2011.” Australian Government; Department of Agriculture, Fisher and Forestry. Web. 21 Feb. 2012. <;.

This is a report posted by the Australian government. It is published quarterly.  It is a reliable source regarding the statistics presented. It was relevant for the website because it gave the writers general ideas regarding world production, consumption and the role of the governments to further expand later on.

 USDA. “World Production, Supply, and Distribution.” United States Department of Agriculture. Web. 20 Mar. 2012. <;.

The report was really complete and showed recent data for the word supply of sugar.  It allowed the writers of the website to elaborate graphs according to different countries (suppliers) and make connections with data from other sources to conclude information about trends on shortages/surpluses of sugar during the twenty-first century.

 Stock Market. “Recommendations.” Balrampur Chini Mills Review and Analysis by Angel Broking. Web. 21 Apr. 2012. <;.

This is a review of the stock market for sugarcane, published on March 6, 2010. The report shows the most recent trends of sugar. Its shows sugar’s variation in prices, expected profitability, and demand and supply schedules. Additionally, it gives recommendations to countries to overcome the problems of the industry. It was relevant for the website due to the recommendations for some countries.

 “Princeton University – A Sweet Problem: Princeton Researchers Find That High-fructose Corn Syrup Prompts Considerably More Weight Gain.” Web. 02 Apr. 2012. <;.

This article was found reliable; thus, it was used as a source for the website. There is an ongoing debate on the impact of High Fructose Corn Syrup on people’s health. However, the article talks about how research has shown that HFCS are harmful for health. It was used on the website to show one of the sides that people are taking regarding the debate about which sweetener is better/worse for health: sugar or HFCS?

 McLaughlin, Lisa. “Is High-Fructose Corn Syrup Really Good for You?” Time. Time, 17 Sept. 2008. Web. 22 Mar. 2012. <;.

This article was published on Time Magazine. To the writers’ eye, it looks reliable. It shows a second perspective regarding HFCS. It is a summary of works from different organizations and people regarding the good influences of HFCS on health. It was relevant because it gave facts about ‘the benefits’ of HFCS on health and the beliefs of many organizations, which helped prove the point that there is a debate regarding sweeteners that may cause a bigger health issue in the world.

 “21st-Century Slaves – National Geographic Magazine.” National Geographic Magazine. Web. 12 Mar. 2012. <;.

 The article shows a different picture of slavery. It states that there are slaves even in our days. It is a great source of information regarding slavery in the twenty-first century. It presents great visual sources. However, it does not allow people to use it on other websites; thus, the writer included only general facts about the topic.

 Nathan S. Mosier and Klein Ileleji. “How Fuel Ethanol Is Made from Corn.” Purdue University. Web. 20 March. 2012 <>

First of all, this is a reliable source. Second of all, it provides a good amount of reliable information regarding ethanol, its definition, production, uses on gasoline, some of the problems of production, and possible solution. It was a relevant source of information for the website.

 Hirtzer, Michael. “Gasoline Rises to Record Premium over Ethanol.” Reuters. Thomson Reuters, 26 Mar. 2012. Web. 22 Apr. 2012. <;.

This is an article that shows the supply and demand changes in the most recent days of our lives. Since demand for gasoline went down because of a rise in price, supply went down and ethanol producers were affected because they could no longer produce great amounts of blended gasoline. It was a relevant article because it explained one of the most recent challenges of the ethanol world.

Luiz Martinelli and Solange Filosofo. “Expansion of Sugarcane Ethanol Production in Brazil: Environmental and Social Challenges.” Web. 18 March. 2012. <>

This work went really in depth into the social and environmental challenges that Brazil is facing due to ethanol production. However, it was mostly used as a general source of information for the problems and for the importance of the sugarcane production in cycles.

“Ethanol.” Times Topics/ Ethanol. 22 Apr. 2012. Web. 22 Apr. 2012. <;.

The New York Times had ethanol as one of their ‘Times Topics.’ This source was reliable and the information used was only regarding production trends in the world. It gave facts about the largest producers of ethanol in the world.

“Andreas Sigismund Marggraf.” Encyclopedia Britannica. Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 22 Apr. 2012. <;

The Encyclopedia of Britannica talks about Marggraf and about what he is known for and his role in the sugar industry.  It also includes a picture of him. This is a well known source and is also reliable.

“Franz Karl Achard.” The 1911 Encyclopedia. Web. 22 Apr. 2012. <;.

This source is from the 1911 version of the Encyclopedia of Britannica that gives some information on Franz Karl Achard and on  his contribution to the sugar industry.  Categorized by subject and location in the world, this site made it easy to find the necessary information on Achard.

“The Milling Process.” Sugar Australia. Sugar Australia, 2004. Web. 16 Apr. 2012. <;.

Although this site appears biased, the information we used wasn’t anything that could be prejudiced. This site explained the process of sugar refining and what actually happens at a mill, information we couldn’t really find anywhere else.

Deerr, Noël. The History of Sugar. London: Chapman and Hall, 1949. Print.

This book was two volumes with over 1000 pages about the history of sugar. With this source we were able to find all the information about the colonies and other aspects of sugar. Without this source, the project would have taken a lot longer to get ready. It contained all the information we needed already compiled into one book. It was probably the most valuable source of information for the website. It involved all the aspects of sugar that the writers needed to touch on.

Benfey, Christopher. “French Creoles | Norbert Rillieux.” Welcome to Web. 22 Apr. 2012. <;.

This website was very useful and provided vital information about Norbert Rillieux. I felt that this information was not biased, but fact based. It went into great detail about Rillieux and things that were going on during this time period regarding the sugar industry.  The details were enough to get the point across, making the webpage not too long, yet not too short.

Raymundo, Myrla. “History: Origin of Street Names in Union City.” Tri-City Voice Newspaper. Web. 21 Apr. 2012. <;.

Although this website was not generated for history relations, it was a valuable website when doing research on Ebenezer Dyer.  The website is a newspaper online and tells information on how street names in Union County came about. Under Dyer’s portion, it explains his significance and talks about him being wealthy and having a beet factory on his property. This source seems creditable, not only because it’s a newspaper, but because it also is not biased.

Armer, Austin A. “Historical Highlights in Sugar Beet Harvest Mechanization.” Journal of Sugar Beet Research. 13.4 (1964): 321. Web. 

This particular citation comes from an online journal by the name of Journal of Sugar Beet Research.  This source was very useful and provided information on several different inventors in the sugar industry. It includes pictures of their inventions and gives a brief summary about how it played a role in this industry. Being that it is a journal, it also includes a lot of information on other subjects, but is not biased.

Whipps, Heather. “How Sugar Changed the World.” 2 June 2008. Web. 23 Apr. 2012. <;.

This website provided basic information about how sugar changed the world. It provided information on the Triangular Trade routes and how sugar itself developed throughout different areas over a course of time. This is an article posted online and does not seem to biased by any means, rather factual.

Tortello, Rebecca. “Jamaica Gleaner : Pieces of the Past:The Arrival Of The Africans.”Jamaica Gleaner News Online. 3 Feb. 2004. Web. 23 Apr. 2012. <;.

This website regarding Jamaica and their role in the history of sugar is an intensive amount of vital information. The facts are set apart in three different categories, each going into great detail about what took place throughout time. This site seems to include necessary information that is fact based.

Herrera, Marianela C. “CANE, SUGAR AND THE ENVIRONMENT.” FAO: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, for a World without Hunger. FAO Corporate. Web. 23 Apr. 2012. <;.

This website provided much information on the environmental impact that sugar production has.  It goes into detail about various ways that the environment is harmed. It seems to be a very reliable source and does not seem to be biased.

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